The 55 Greatest Baroque Composers in One Sentence Each

Jacopo Peri

Peri Credited with writing the first opera, “Euridice,” and seen as key in transitioning music from Renaissance to Baroque stylings

Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck

Jan_Pieterszoon_Sweelinck Established North Germany organ tradition, the harmonically and rhythmically complex improvisatory style that was later mastered by Dieterich Buxtehude

Claudio Monteverdi

220px-claudio_monteverdi First musical dramatist, sometimes considered first Baroque opera composer, who built on Peri’s Renaissance-Baroque transition work

Gregorio Allegri

Gregorio An early instrumentalist who is more well-known for his vocal works, mainly “Miserere mei, Deus,” which is sung annually at the Sistine Chapel during Holy Week

Girolamo Frescobaldi

Girolamo Frescobaldi Influential early instrumental Baroque keyboard composer who showed how interesting keyboard music, unaccompanied by voice, could be

Heinrich Schütz

schuetz With “Dafne,” first German opera composer and the most renowned German composer before Bach and Handel

Samuel Scheidt

Scheidt
Student of Sweelinck who helped spread North German organ tradition throughout Europe, and noted for his “patterned variation” keyboard technique in which chorale phrases build to a climax

Denis Gaultier

200px-denis_gaultier
French lutenist known for writing graceful melodic lines with clear phrase structures

William Lawes

Lawes Minor figure but possibly the most notable English composer along with John Blow prior to Henry Purcell. His viol consort suites juxtaposed bizarre, spine-tingling themes with pastoral ones

Francesco Cavalli

Cavalli1 Helped bring opera to the masses with his performances in small public houses that relied on limited orchestras of strings and basso continuo

Giacomo Carissimi

Giacomo1 First master of the oratorio, which set biblical or other forms of sacred text to music in dramatized settings that dispensed with scenery and costumes

Antonio Bretali

Bertali Helped establish the tradition of Italian opera seria

Johann Jakob Froberger

Froberger Developed the keyboard suite and contributed to the exchange of musical traditions through his travels outside Germany

Barbara Strozzi

strozzi Arguably the most notable female composer of the Baroque period with vocal pieces that are firmly rooted in the seconda pratica tradition but that have more lyricism than Monteverdi’s work

Johann Heinrich Schmelzer

SchmelzerVirtuoso violinist who helped bring the sonata form to Germany and whose innovative techniques in playing and tuning greatly influenced Biber.

Jean-Henri d’Anglebert

anglebert Known mainly for his four suites of harpsichord music and the standard he set for the material quality of the music books he published

Jean-Baptiste Lully

250px-jean-baptiste_lully_nicolas_mignard The Italian founder of French opera who, with Moliiere, created comédie-ballet, which combined theater, comedy, incidental music, and ballet. “Psyché” is his most well-known work

Dieterich Buxtehude

Buxtehude Pinnacle of North German organ tradition who is said to have inspired Bach to walk 200 miles to hear him play. His organ works today remain central to the standard organ repertoire

Marc-Antoine Charpentier

MA_Charpentier_I Known for his sacred music, which is considered more varied, expressive, and accessible than that of Lully, his contemporary

Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber

HIF Biber Widely regarded as one of the most important composers for the violin in the history of the instrument, pioneering many tuning and playing techniques and composing works that use multiple stops in intricate polyphonic passages. His “Mystery Sonatas” are among the earliest known pieces for solo violin

John Blow

Blow English composer whose opera, “Venus and Adonis,” is credited with influencing Henry Purcell’s landmark opera, “Dido and Aeneas,” and who composed hundreds of anthems for Anglican church services

Domenico Gabrielli

Gabrielli Composer of some of the earliest works for solo cello, including a group of seven ricercari for unaccompanied cello

Johann Pachelbel

unknown Known today mostly for his Canon in D, which is loved and dismissed in equal measure by critics. In his time, he was greatly admired for his work, considered the highest achievement of the South German organ tradition, which is simpler, more melodic than that of the North German organ traditon

Arcangelo Corelli

arcangelo_corelli Eminent instrumentalist composer who is widely credited with developing two of the most significant forms of instrumental music there is, the sonata and the concerto. His “Christmas Concerto” remains a favorite today

Marin Marais

Marais1 Master of the basse de viol and the leading French composer for the instrument, which today has largely been replaced by the cello

Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer

Fischer-Johann-Caspar-Ferdinand-01 Widely regarded as one of the best keyboardists of his day, but most of his work has been lost, so the German composer’s work is rarely heard today

Giuseppe Torelli

220px-Giuseppe_Torelli Matured Corelli’s idea of the concerto and today his 12 concerti of opus 8 constitute one of the great achievements of the Baroque period

Henry Purcell

250px-henry_purcell_by_john_closterman Combined French and Italian influences into a unique English Baroque style. The opera “Dido and Aeneas” is his most well-known work and today he remains one of England’s most eminent composers

Alessandro Scarlatti

457px-alessandro_scarlatti Founder of the Neapolitan school of opera, which took Italian opera in a more Classical, less Baroque style, and influenced even non-Italian opera, including the work of Handel

Johann Christoph Pez

Pez2 German composer whose work, heavily influenced by Lully’s French style, is little played today but was highly regarded during his time for the quality of his sonatas

Attilio Ariosti

ariosti Noted for his opera and, maybe more importantly, his work for the viola d’amore, which is a violin-like instrument characterized by non-playing “sympathetic strings” that resonate “in sympathy” with the strings above them when they’re played. Biber is another composer who made memorable use of sympathetic strings

Jean-Féry Rebel

Rebel French violin prodigy who studied under Lully and whose work often had a surprisingly modern, and often under-appreciated, sound to it, with striking counter-rhythms and complex harmonies

François Couperin

250px-francois_couperin_2 French keyboard master who innovated fingering techniques, established new heights of ornamentation, and brought Corelli’s sonata form to France

Tomaso Albinoni

220px-Albinoni Italian composer whose instrumental music greatly influenced Bach but who is almost entirely known today for a piece of music he didn’t actually write, the “Adagio in D Minor.” The piece was mainly written by Italian musicologist Remo Giazotto, who, after Albinoni’s death, took the small bit that Albinoni had written and turned it into the piece that’s so familiar today

Antonio Vivaldi

170px-antonio_vivaldi The greatest and most prolific writer of concertos, including the set of four violin concertos so popular today, the “Four Seasons”

Jan Dismas Zelenka

zelenka1 Czech Baroque composer whose music is admired for its daring compositional structure, harmonic invention, and counterpoint

Pietro Castrucci

Castrucci Virtuoso violinist who studied under Corelli and eventually settled in London. HIs work is little known today, but he is credited with inventing the violetta marina, an instrument no one today has seen but is believed to be a smaller version of the viola d’amore

Georg Philipp Telemann

220px-telemann_4 Hyper-prolific composer of some 3,000 works who was greatly admired by Bach, a friend of his, and whose music is said to serve as a bridge between German Baroque and Classical styles

Jean-Philippe Rameau

200px-attribuc3a9_c3a0_joseph_aved_portrait_de_jean-philippe_rameau_vers_1728_-_001 French harpsichord genius whose music built on the work of Lully and became the pinnacle of the French opera tradition

Johann Gottfried Walther

walther

German music theorist, organist, composer, and lexicographer of the Baroque era. He was most well known as the compiler of the Musicalisches Lexicon. 

Johann Sebastian Bach

220px-johann_sebastian_bach The titan of western art whose music is revered for its intellectual depth, technical command, and artistic beauty

Domenico Scarlatti

220px-retrato_de_domenico_scarlatti Master harpsichord composer whose work, starting with his 555 keyboard sonatas, helped transition music from a Baroque to a Classical sound

George Frideric Handel

220px-georg_friedrich_hc3a4ndel German-born British composer who made his fame and established his imminence as a writer of operas and oratorios, but who is as well-known today for his concerti grossi, including “The Water Music,” and his sonatas

Benedetto Marcello

Marcello1 Much admired in his time for his Vivaldi-like work, he’s largely known today for his Estro poetico-armonico, a musical setting for voices, figured bass, and occasional solo instruments

Sylvius Leopold Weiss

weiss German lutenist who was perhaps the most prolific composer for the instrument with his approximately 600 pieces for it

Francesca Geminiani

Geminiani Instrumentalist composer in the manner of Corelli but with his concerti grossi and sonatas, enlarged the canvas by varying the material more than Corelli and enriching the orchestral colorations

Johann Friedrich Fasch

Fasch image German violinist held in high regard by Bach for his work, including his cantatas, concertos, and symphonies, but his vocal works have largely been lost

Giuseppe Antonio Brescianello

Brescianello Violinist and lutenist known mainly for his 12 concerti e sinphonie op. 1 and 18 pieces for gallichone, a type of lute

Francesco Maria Veracini

Veracini Violinist best known for his suites of violin sonatas. His bowing technique so impressed Tartini that it led this latter composer to withdraw from public while he studied how to apply it to his own work

Giuseppe Tartini

Tartini Corelli’s most significant successor in writing music for the violin. He wrote 150 or so violin concertos and a hundred violin sonatas, including his “Devil’s Trill Sonata,” which Tartini said came to him in a dream

Pietro Locatelli

Locatelli Violin virtuoso whose “L’arte del violino, opus 3,” a collection of 12 concertos for solo violin, strings, and basso continuo, was one of the most influential musical publications of the early eighteenth century. Locatelli’s style is considered a bridge between Corelli and Vivaldi

Jean-Marie Leclair

jmleclair Renowned violinist who is considered to have founded the French violin school.

Johann Joachim Quantz

Quantz Widely regarded as the greatest player and teacher of the flute, and composer for the instrument. He was also an innovative designer of the instrument, adding keys to enhance intonation

Johann Adolph Hasse

Hasse A popular composer in his day, best known for his prolific operatic output and for his role in developing opera seria, the noble, serious form of opera that contrasts with opera buffa, or comic opera

Carlos Seixas

Seixas1 Portuguese composer influenced by the German Empfindsamer Stil (“sensitive style”) for keyboard works. Only three orchestral pieces and around 100 keyboard sonatas, plus a handful of choral works for liturgical use, are available today

Baldassare Galuppi

Galuppi_Baldassare Known as “the father of the comic opera,” he enjoyed considerable fame for the dramma giocoso (“merry”) style of opera that he helped usher in

Giovanni Battista Pergolesi

220px-Pergolesi Along with Galuppi, an innovator of opera buffa, or comic opera, whose work helped establish the traditions that would govern the writing of opera buffa for more than a century

William Boyce

Boyce English “Galante” composer best known for his set of eight symphonies, anthems, and odes. “Galante” refers to a simplified, modern style of music that, in some accounts, is seen as a kind of transition between the Baroque and Classical periods of music

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Samuel Scheidt: Books and Music

Selected Books

The Registration of Baroque Organ Music
Indiana Univ. Press, 1999
Barbara Owen
$23.40 on Amazon

Scheidt4

“In this book, Barbara Owen has created a rich resource of historical information coupled with strategies for interpreting that information on today’s instruments.”—Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society

Selected Music

Scheidt-1 Great Sacred Concertos (2007), 1 CD

Scheidt2 Concertuum Sacorum (2007), 2-CD set

Scheidt3 Tabulatura Nova I (2003), 2-CD set

More Samuel Scheidt music

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Samuel Scheidt, 1587-1654

Scheidt

Selected Recordings

Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern

O Nachbar Roland

Warum betrübst du dich, mein Herz

Selected Sheet Music

In dulci jubilo

Jubilo

Source: IMSLP.org

Showcase Piece

Ach, du feiner reiter

Notes and Commentary

Samuel Scheidt was a German composer, organist, and teacher of the early Baroque era. He studied with Jan Sweelinck, the distinguished Dutch composer, whose work had a clear influence on Scheidt’s style. Scheidt was the first internationally significant German composer for the organ, and represents the flowering of the new north German style, which occurred largely as a result of the Protestant Reformation. In south Germany and some other countries of Europe, the spiritual and artistic influence of Rome remained strong, so most music continued to be derivative of Italian models. Cut off from Rome, musicians in the newly Protestant areas readily developed styles that were much different from those of their neighbors.

Scheidt’s music is in two principal categories: instrumental music, including a large amount of keyboard music, mostly for organ; and sacred vocal music, some of which is a cappella and some of which uses a basso continuo or other instrumental accompaniment. In his numerous chorale preludes, Scheidt often used a “patterned variation” technique, in which each phrase of the chorale uses a different rhythmic motive, and each variation is more elaborate than the previous one, until the climax of the composition is reached. In addition to his chorale preludes, he wrote numerous fugues, suites of dances (which were often in a cyclic form, sharing a common ground bass) and fantasias. He lived from November 1587 to March 24, 1654.—Excerpted from Wikipedia

Books and Music

Selected Books

The Registration of Baroque Organ Music
Indiana Univ. Press, 1999
Barbara Owen
$23.40 on Amazon

Scheidt4

“In this book, Barbara Owen has created a rich resource of historical information coupled with strategies for interpreting that information on today’s instruments.”—Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society

Selected Music

Scheidt-1 Great Sacred Concertos (2007), 1 CD

Scheidt2 Concertuum Sacorum (2007), 2-CD set

Scheidt3 Tabulatura Nova I (2003), 2-CD set

More Samuel Scheidt music

Complete Works

Cantilena anglica de Fortuna
Canzon ‘Bergamasca’
Canzon ‘Cornetto’
Canzon super ‘O Nachbar Roland’
Canzon super Cantionem Belgicam
Canzon super Cantionem Gallicam
Canzon super Intradam Aethiopicam

Deutsches Magnificat

Galliard Battaglia
Gelobet seist Du, Jesus Christ

In dulci jubilo

Komm, heiliger Geist, Herre Gott

Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland

Resonet in Laudibus

Wohlan, so kommet her, ihr Frommen

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Johann Adolph Hasse: Notes and Commentary

Johann Adolph Hasse was an 18th-century German composer, singer, and teacher of music. Immensely popular in his time, Hasse was best known for his prolific operatic output, though he also composed a considerable quantity of sacred music. He was a pivotal figure in the development of opera seria and 18th-century music.

Despite his popularity as a figure at the very forefront of 18th-century serious Italian opera, after his death Hasse’s reputation vastly declined and his music lay mostly unperformed (with the exception of some of his sacred works, which were revived now and again in Germany). In particular, his operas sank without trace and revival only begun as the 20th century approached its end.

In his day, Hasse’s style was noted primarily for his lyricism and sense of melody.
Careful choice of key was a crucial factor in Hasse’s style, with certain emotions usually marked out by certain key choices. Amorous feelings were expressed by A, for instance, while for expressions of aristocratic nobility Hasse used C and B flat; on the other hand, his supernatural and fear-inducing music usually went into the keys of C and F minor. Most of his arias begin in the major, switching only to minor for the B section before returning to major for the da capo. As his career developed his arias grew much longer but a lyrical sense was still his overriding target. He lived from March 1699 to December 16, 1783.—Excerpted from Wikipedia

Johann Adolph Hasse Books and Music
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Johann Adolph Hasse: Complete Works

Hasse’s output was extensive. Access complete list.

Instrumental music

    • Six sonatas for cembalo (pianoforte)
    • Six trio sonatas
    • Sonata I in e minor
    • Sonata II in C major
    • Sonata III in A major
    • Sonata IV in G major
    • Sonata V in E major
    • Sonata VI in D major

Cantatas and ballads

      • Chieggio ai gigli ed alle rose (Pietro Metastasio; Naples 1727/1729)
      • Il nome or Scrivo in te l’amato nome (Pietro Metastasio; Naples 1727/1729)
      • È ver, mia Fille, è vero (Pietro Metastasio; Naples 1727/1729)
      • L’Armonica or Ah perché col canto mio (with glass harmonica) (Pietro Metastasio; Vienna 1769)
      • La Gelosia (Pietro Metastasio; Vienna 1769)

Church music

        • Litaniae Lauretanae in f minor
        • Liltaniae Lauretanae in G major
        • Missa ultima in g minor (Venice, 1783)
        • Messe in d minor (1751)
        • Miserere in d minor

Opera

            • Antioco
            • Apostolo Zeno
            • Antonio e Cleopatra
            • l Sesostrate
            • La Semele

Johann Adolph Hasse Books and Music
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Johann Adolph Hasse, 1699-1783

Hasse

Selected Recordings

Adagio

Cleofide

Sinfonia in G Minor

Selected Sheet Music

Flute Concerto in G Major
flute concerto

Source: IMSLP.org

Showcase Piece

Laudate pueri, Psalm 112

Notes and Commentary

Johann Adolph Hasse was an 18th-century German composer, singer, and teacher of music. Immensely popular in his time, Hasse was best known for his prolific operatic output, though he also composed a considerable quantity of sacred music. He was a pivotal figure in the development of opera seria and 18th-century music.

Despite his popularity as a figure at the very forefront of 18th-century serious Italian opera, after his death Hasse’s reputation vastly declined and his music lay mostly unperformed (with the exception of some of his sacred works, which were revived now and again in Germany). In particular, his operas sank without trace and revival only begun as the 20th century approached its end.

In his day, Hasse’s style was noted primarily for his lyricism and sense of melody.
Careful choice of key was a crucial factor in Hasse’s style, with certain emotions usually marked out by certain key choices. Amorous feelings were expressed by A, for instance, while for expressions of aristocratic nobility Hasse used C and B flat; on the other hand, his supernatural and fear-inducing music usually went into the keys of C and F minor. Most of his arias begin in the major, switching only to minor for the B section before returning to major for the da capo. As his career developed his arias grew much longer but a lyrical sense was still his overriding target. He lived from March 1699 to December 16, 1783.—Excerpted from Wikipedia

Books and Music

Selected Books

Cleofide (sheet music)
Johann Adolph Hasse
$62.10

cleofide

 

Selected Music

hasse-ja Sonates pour clavecin (2013), 1 CD

didone Didone abbandonata (2013), 3-CD set

tisbe Piramo E Tisbe (1995), 2-CD set

More Johann Adolph Hasse music

Complete Works

Hasse’s output was extensive. Access complete list.

Instrumental music

    • Six sonatas for cembalo (pianoforte)
    • Six trio sonatas
    • Sonata I in e minor
    • Sonata II in C major
    • Sonata III in A major
    • Sonata IV in G major
    • Sonata V in E major
    • Sonata VI in D major

Cantatas and ballads

      • Chieggio ai gigli ed alle rose (Pietro Metastasio; Naples 1727/1729)
      • Il nome or Scrivo in te l’amato nome (Pietro Metastasio; Naples 1727/1729)
      • È ver, mia Fille, è vero (Pietro Metastasio; Naples 1727/1729)
      • L’Armonica or Ah perché col canto mio (with glass harmonica) (Pietro Metastasio; Vienna 1769)
      • La Gelosia (Pietro Metastasio; Vienna 1769)

Church music

        • Litaniae Lauretanae in f minor
        • Liltaniae Lauretanae in G major
        • Missa ultima in g minor (Venice, 1783)
        • Messe in d minor (1751)
        • Miserere in d minor

Opera

            • Antioco
            • Apostolo Zeno
            • Antonio e Cleopatra
            • l Sesostrate
            • La Semele

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Johann Christoph Pez: Notes and Commentary

Johann Christoph Pez (also Petz, but not to be confused with Johann Christoph Pezel, an earlier German composer) was a musician, Kapellmeister, and composer. He was born in Munich. From 1676, he was the tower watchman and later the choir director at the Church of Saint Peter in Munich. In 1688, he became a musician at the court of prince Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria, who offered him the opportunity to pursue his musical studies in Rome with the leading Italian composer Arcangelo Corelli. In 1694, Pez was in the service of Joseph Clemens, Archbishop-Elector of Cologne at his residence in Bonn, working to improve the prince’s chapel orchestra. In 1695, he became Kapellmeister and advisor to the prince. Returning to Munich in 1701, he remained for five years at the court’s chapel. In 1706, he became the senior Kapellmeister (Oberkapellmeister) of Eberhard, the Duke of Württemberg, a position he held until his death.

Under his directorship, the chapel orchestra expanded considerably. Like many of his contemporaries, he was heavily influenced by the French style, and he was one of many imitators of Jean-Baptiste Lully. Although largely forgotten today, he was mentioned in a lyric poem written by Georg Philipp Telemann in 1730, who placed Pez beside the names of composers like Händel, as a grand composer of his era, singling out in particular the quality of his sonatas. He lived from September 9, 1664, to 25 September 25, 1716.—Excerpted from Wikipedia

Johann Christoph Pez Books and Music
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