The Mystery of the Violetta Marina

Castrucci

Castrucci

It’s great acquainting yourself with composers who are unfamiliar to you and I was getting to know Pietro Castrucci when I read that he had invented something called the violetta marina. There was no explanation of what that was, but since “violetta” refers to a small violin, it appeared to be some type of string instrument.

Of course, the first thing I did was search the term on Google and there was little about it. But I did come across a discussion on the topic among violin makers, and one mentioned that he believed Handel used one in Orlando, his 1733 opera.

Orlando

Handel’s Olando

The consensus among the violin makers was that the instrument was a type of viola with sympathetic strings, what’s called a viola d’amore. Sympathetic strings (sometimes also referred to as resonating strings), are strings that sit below the regular strings and vibrate, or resonate, in sympathy with the strings above them as they’re played. (Click on the violin image below.) A few Baroque composers, including Franz Biber and Attilio Ariosti, make fairly extensive use of instruments with sympathetic strings. Vivaldi also uses them in some of his compositions. I especially like Biber’s use of them in Harmonia Artificiosa. A good example is his Partia VII. Listen to the first 30 seconds and you’ll hear the resonating strings. (Click on the video at the end of this post.)

sympathetic strings

Sympathetic strings.
Click to enlarge.

And yet the mystery persists, because even violin makers can’t say with any certainty how the violetta marina differs from the viola d’amore. “I don’t think that any such instrument has been found,” says Myron Rosenblum, one of the participants in the violin makers’ discussion.

The Viola da Gamba Society of America thinks it’s a small, three-stringed viola with a sympathetic string.

Castrucci is a fairly obscure composer. I can find only one full album of his music on Amazon, his 6 Concerti Grossi, Op. 3. Castrucci Grossi He’s featured on some compilations with other Italian composers, but little of his work appears to be around today. Even the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP), which is so thorough in cataloguing sheet music, has no Castrucci compositions in its databases. On YouTube there are performances of some sonatas featuring recorder solos (see the image below for Sonata No. 3), but other than those, plus the Concerti Grosso, there isn’t much.

Cowley

Castrucci Sonata No. 3 for Recorder

We do know Castrucci studied with Corelli for a while and later was the leader of the opera orchestra of George Frideric Handel, so he would be familiar with Handel’s use of the viola d’amore in Orlando.

Ideally, we would go to that opera to hear what the violetta marina sounds like, since the piece calls for it, but contemporary recordings use the viola d’amore.

For a while I wondered if the instrument is in some way related, or developed in tribute, to French composer Marin Marais, who was noted for his basse de viol work. Indeed, he is probably the leading historical composer of that instrument. Given that Castrucci named his instument violetta marina, it makes you wonder if he wasn’t trying to produce an instrument with a sound that resonated with Marais’s work.

tromba marina

Tromba Marina

geiringer But then I came across a reference to the tromba marina in a book called Instruments in the History of Western Music by Karl Geiringer. The tromba marina is an unusual single-string instrument that makes the sound of a trumpet. One theory that has stuck to the instrument is that it was played by nuns to mimic the sound of the trumpet because they were prohibited from having brass instruments in their convent.

Whether there’s any connection between these two marinas, the tromba and the violetta, is unclear. Given that, and as long as even violin makers don’t know what the violetta marina is, the idea that it’s an instrument that tries to channel Marin Marais is probably as good a theory as any.

In any case, the viola d a’more produces a wonderful sound. I especially like it in Biber’s work. It would be great to eventually get to the bottom of the mystery of the violetta marina, because I’m sure many people would like to hear what works written for viola d’amore sound like using Castrucci’s invention.—Nabob, On Baroque

Franz Biber’s Partia VII:

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Pietro Castrucci: Notes and Commentary

Pietro Castrucci was an Italian violinist and composer. He was born in Rome, where he studied with Arcangelo Corelli. In 1715, he settled in London, where he became known as one of the finest virtuoso violinists of his generation. By 1718 he had become leader of the opera orchestra of George Frideric Handel, a position he held until 1737, when he was succeeded by the younger John Clegg. In 1739 he became one of the first beneficiaries of the Royal Society of Musicians and was little heard of thereafter, apart from an erroneous report of his death in 1746. After a benefit concert in Dublin in 1750, he died there of malaria in 1752. Despite being by then a pauper, he was buried with full ceremony in St. Mary’s Church, Dublin. Castrucci was the inventor of the “violetta marina,” which is a variation of the viola d’amore. More on Castrucci’s violetta marina. Handel wrote obbligati for this instrument. He lived from 1679 to March 7, 1752.—Excerpted from Wikipedia

Pietro Castrucci Books and Music
More on Castrucci
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Pietro Castrucci: Complete Works

The following is a partial list of Castrucci’s works.

1. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Adagio Andantino
2. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Allegro Ardito
3. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Adagio un poco Andantino
4. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Allegro spirituoso
5. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Allegro Moderato. Adagio
6. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Vivace
7. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Andantino Pianissimo sempre
8. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Andante
9. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Allegro
10. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/6: Allegro
11. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/6: Adagio
12. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/6: Giga. Allegro
13. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Introduzione: Allegro
14. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Adagio Andantino
15. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Allegro
16. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Gavotta: Andante
17. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Finale con L’Eco: Andantino
18. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Andante Moderato
19. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Allegro
20. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Adagio un poco Andante
21. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Allegro. Adagio
22. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Gavotta: Allegro. Andante Piano. Allegro
23. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Preludio un poco Andante
24. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Allegro
25. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Sarabanda: Andantino. Piano sempre
26. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Allegro. Alla francese
Sonata ll in C Major
Sonata d moll

Pietro Castrucci Books and Music
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Pietro Castrucci: Books and Music

Selected Books

Music in the Galant Style
Oxfor Univ. Press, 2007
Robert Gjerdingen
$42.77 on Amazon

Galant

“This is an outstanding book. It is one of the most informative, enjoyable, fascinating, and thought-provoking books on music that I have ever read. Through hundreds of musical examples, it demonstrates how extensively the music of the “galant” 18th-century era was based on the skillful treatment and combination of a limited number of basic schemata.”—Olli Väisälä on Amazon

The Cambridge Companion to the Violin
Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993
Robin Stowell, ed.
$31.13 on Amazon

cambridge

“As an adult beginner, this excellent book provides one with the highlights to the violin’s history, construction, repertoire, and pedagogy, among other subjects. This book is also an excellent choice for anyone who enjoys listening to the violin. Being a teacher at a fine arts high school, I have recommended this book to my students who are studying violin.”—Amazon review

Selected Music

Castrucci Grossi 6 Concerti Grossi, Op. 3 (2001), 1 CD

castrucci-2 Italian Musicians in London (1997), 1 CD

castrucci 3 The Grand Tour, 1 CD

More Pietro Castrucci music

More on Castrucci
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Pietro Castrucci, 1679-1752

Castrucci

Selected Recordings

6 Concerti grossi, Op. 3

Sonata ll in C Major

Sonata d moll

Selected Sheet Music

Opus 2, No.4, Mvt. 1, Andante No. 4
castrucci-sheet

Source: Music in the Galant Style

Showcase Piece

Op. 3 No. 12 / Concerto grosso

Notes and Commentary

Pietro Castrucci was an Italian violinist and composer. He was born in Rome, where he studied with Arcangelo Corelli. In 1715, he settled in London, where he became known as one of the finest virtuoso violinists of his generation. By 1718 he had become leader of the opera orchestra of George Frideric Handel, a position he held until 1737, when he was succeeded by the younger John Clegg. In 1739 he became one of the first beneficiaries of the Royal Society of Musicians and was little heard of thereafter, apart from an erroneous report of his death in 1746. After a benefit concert in Dublin in 1750, he died there of malaria in 1752. Despite being by then a pauper, he was buried with full ceremony in St. Mary’s Church, Dublin. Castrucci was the inventor of the “violetta marina,” which is a variation of the viola d’amore. More on Castrucci’s violetta marina. Handel wrote obbligati for this instrument. He lived from 1679 to March 7, 1752.—Excerpted from Wikipedia

Books and Music

Selected Books

Music in the Galant Style
Oxfor Univ. Press, 2007
Robert Gjerdingen
$42.77 on Amazon

Galant

“This is an outstanding book. It is one of the most informative, enjoyable, fascinating, and thought-provoking books on music that I have ever read. Through hundreds of musical examples, it demonstrates how extensively the music of the “galant” 18th-century era was based on the skillful treatment and combination of a limited number of basic schemata.”—Olli Väisälä on Amazon

The Cambridge Companion to the Violin
Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993
Robin Stowell, ed.
$31.13 on Amazon

cambridge

“As an adult beginner, this excellent book provides one with the highlights to the violin’s history, construction, repertoire, and pedagogy, among other subjects. This book is also an excellent choice for anyone who enjoys listening to the violin. Being a teacher at a fine arts high school, I have recommended this book to my students who are studying violin.”—Amazon review

Selected Music

Castrucci Grossi 6 Concerti Grossi, Op. 3 (2001), 1 CD

castrucci-2 Italian Musicians in London (1997), 1 CD

castrucci 3 The Grand Tour, 1 CD

More Pietro Castrucci music

Complete Works

The following is a partial list of Castrucci’s works.

1. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Adagio Andantino
2. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Allegro Ardito
3. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Adagio un poco Andantino
4. Concerto Grosso in A minor, Op. 3/4: Allegro spirituoso
5. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Allegro Moderato. Adagio
6. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Vivace
7. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Andantino Pianissimo sempre
8. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Andante
9. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/9: Allegro
10. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/6: Allegro
11. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/6: Adagio
12. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/6: Giga. Allegro
13. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Introduzione: Allegro
14. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Adagio Andantino
15. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Allegro
16. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Gavotta: Andante
17. Concerto Grosso in D major, Op. 3/12: Finale con L’Eco: Andantino
18. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Andante Moderato
19. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Allegro
20. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Adagio un poco Andante
21. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Allegro. Adagio
22. Concerto Grosso in F major, Op. 3/5: Gavotta: Allegro. Andante Piano. Allegro
23. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Preludio un poco Andante
24. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Allegro
25. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Sarabanda: Andantino. Piano sempre
26. Concerto Grosso in G minor, Op. 3/11: Allegro. Alla francese
Sonata ll in C Major
Sonata d moll

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